Medal sanctioned in 1902 to replace the East & West Africa medal and always found accompanied with bars. For most of the period this medal was awarded for military activity, much of it small scale to counter local opposition, stabilise and even expand the empire in Africa. A total of 45 bars are attributable to this medal with the ones illustrated here as follows:
N.Nigeria 1902 1st Feb – 16th May and 15th June – 30th Nov 1902. Awarded to members of an expedition to Bornu and also to members of the Kontagora Force as well as those at Arungu and on French convoy duty. A total of 1,039 attributable medals for this clasp + 3 DCM were awarded.
Military operations began in 1902 and continued for about five years of sporadic fighting. The remnants of the Bornu Empire were conquered in 1902 and the Sokoto Caliphate and the Kano Emirate were taken over in 1903.
N.Nigeria 1904 March – Oct 1904 & awarded for the following expeditions in 1904:
- Expedition in the Dakka Kerri country March 1904
- Expedition against the tribes who occupied the country north of Wase March / April 1904
- Expedition against the Kilba tribe north of the Yola July 1904
- Expedition against the people of Semolika October 1904
A total of 663 Medals were awarded with the N.Nigeria 1904 Bar.
Somaliland 1902-04 18th Jan – 11th May 1904. This bar was awarded for 3 expeditions against Muhammed Bin Abdullah.
553 medals attributable to HMS Hyacinth
Somaliland 1908-10 19th August 1908-31st January 1910. This bar was awarded for action against the Somalis
210 medals attributable to HMS Barham
Nyasaland 1915 24th Jan – 17th Feb 1915 Awarded to those who quelled the Chilembwe uprising in the Shire Highlands.
903 medals attributed to this clasp,
The first part of Chilembwe’s plan was to attack European centres in the Shire Highlands on the night between the 23rd and 24 January 1915, to obtain arms and ammunition, and the second was to attack European estates in the same area simultaneously. Most of Chilembwe’s force of about 200 men were from his P.I.M congregations in Chiradzulu and Mlanje, with some support from other independent African churches in the Shire Highlands. In the third part of the plan, the forces of the Ncheu revolt based on the local independent Seventh Day Baptists would move south to link up with Chilembwe. He hoped that discontented Africans on European estates, relatives of soldiers killed in the war and others would join as the rising progressed. It is uncertain if Chilembwe had definite plans in the event of failure; some suggest he would seek a symbolic death, others that he planned to escape to Mozambique. The first and third parts of the plan failed almost completely: some of his lieutenants did not carry out their attacks, so few arms were obtained, the Ncheu group had failed to form and move south, and there was no mass support for the rising.
The attack on European estates was largely one on the Bruce estates, where William Jervis Livingstone was killed and beheaded and two other European employees killed. Three Africans were also killed by the rebels, and European-run mission was set on fire and a missionary was severely wounded. All the dead and injured were men, as Chilembwe had ordered that women should not be harmed. On 24 January, a Sunday, Chilembwe conducted a service in the P.I.M. church next to a pole impaling Livingstone’s head, but by 26 January he realised that the uprising had failed to gain local support. After avoiding attempts to capture him and apparently trying to escape into Mozambique, he was tracked down and killed on 3 February.
Kenya 21st Oct 1952 – 17th Nov 1956 Awarded for 91 dys or more service against the Mau Mau.
The Mau Mau Uprising (also known as the Mau Mau Revolt, Mau Mau Rebellion and Kenya Emergency) was a military conflict that took place in Kenya between 1952 and 1960. It involved Kikuyu-dominated groups summarily called Mau Mau and elements of the British Army, the local Kenya Regiment mostly consisting of the British, auxiliaries and anti-Mau Mau Kikuyu. The capture of rebel leader Dedan Kimathi on 21 October 1956 signalled the ultimate defeat of Mau Mau, and essentially ended the British military campaign.