The Gwalior campaign resulted following disturbances in the State of Gwalior after the death of the Maharajah, February 1843.
Lord Ellenbourough (Governor-General of India) ordered the formation of an Army of Exercise under the command of General Sir Hugh Gough to operate along the border. However, in late December, it became necessary to cross into Gwalior and battles were fought at Maharajpoor and Punniar 29th December 1843.
At the battle of Maharajpoor, Gough defeated the Mahrattas around the villages of Maharajpoor, Skirkapoor and Chonda. On the same day, Major General Grey defeated the Mahrattas who were entrenched in the hills of Punniar.
The 2 stars awarded for these actions were made from captured guns.
The Battle of Maharajpoor
The Marathan army had 14 battalion, 1 000 artillery men with 60 guns and 6 000 cavalry at Maharajpore. The British faced them with troops from the 40th Regiment of Foot with the 2nd and 16th Native Infantry Regiments forming the central column, the 39th Regiment of Foot with the 56th Native Infantry Regiment and a filed battery forming the left column and the 16th Lancers with two troops of horse artillery as well as other artillery forming the right column.
The centre column advanced to attack to where the believed the main enemy force was located. However, during the night the Marathans had moved and the British were surprised as they came under heavy fire from the Marathan artillery in their new positions. The central column then received the order to take the battery positions which they did under continuous heavy fire from shot, grape, canister and chain. The guns were to the South-East Maharajpore with two battalions of Marathan troops for each battery and in Maharajpore with seven battalions for each battery and the British fought hand to hand with the Marathans, both sides taking heavy casualties, to clear the positions. The Marathans fought intensely and few escaped the battle. The British finally defeated the Marathans with 797 men killed, wounded or missing. The Marathans were estimated to have lost 3000 to 4000 men.
The Battle of Punniar
The Marathan at Punniar (29 December 1843) numbered about 12 000 men and occupied the high ground near Mangore. As the British army approached they immediately attacked the Marathan positions driving them from the hill.